Article ID: CBB495736487

Interprétation des variations barométriques au tournant du XVIIIe siècle : allègement de l’atmosphère par les vapeurs et la pluie (2023)

unapi

Nous analysons les tenants et les aboutissants du débat scientifique très intense qui s’est tenu dans la communauté savante européenne au tournant du XVIIIe siècle autour du paradoxe que représentait, pour ceux qui voyaient dans la montée des vapeurs et des exhalaisons et leur résolution en pluie la cause première des variations du baromètre, le fait que le baromètre soit généralement bas quand le ciel est chargé de nuages et le temps à la pluie, et au contraire plutôt haut quand le temps est beau et le ciel clair. Nous donnons les éléments du contexte de la pensée de l’époque en la matière, détaillons les idées alors dominantes sur le lien entre pluie et pression de l’air, présentons les observations confortant les partisans des vapeurs et de la pluie comme cause première des variations du baromètre, ainsi que leur propositions, expériences de laboratoire à l’appui, pour résoudre le paradoxe. [English translation by DeepL.com: Title: Interpreting barometric variations at the turn of the 18th century: lightening the atmosphere with vapors and rain Abstract: We analyze the ins and outs of the intense scientific debate that took place in the European scholarly community at the turn of the 18th century around the paradox represented, for those who saw the rise of vapors and exhalations and their resolution into rain as the primary cause of barometer variations, by the fact that the barometer is generally low when the sky is full of clouds and the weather is rainy, and on the contrary rather high when the weather is fine and the sky is clear. We set the context for the thinking of the time on this subject, detailing the prevailing ideas at the time on the link between rain and air pressure, and present the observations that supported the proponents of vapors and rain as the primary cause of barometer variations, as well as their proposals, backed up by laboratory experiments, for resolving the paradox.]

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Authors & Contributors
McConnell, Anita
Éric Chassefière
Avramov, Iordan
Brown, Neville G.
Chen-Morris, Raz
Crewe, M. E.
Journals
Almagest
Annals of Science: The History of Science and Technology
British Journal for the History of Science
Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society
Eos: Transactions, American Geophysical Union
Galilæana: Journal of Galilean Studies
Publishers
University of Chicago Press
Hermann
Johns Hopkins University Press
Kluwer
Routledge
Springer
Concepts
Meteorology
Barometer
Earth sciences
Scientific apparatus and instruments
Climate and climatology
Astronomy
People
Boyle, Robert
Torricelli, Evangelista
Bacon, Francis, 1st Baron Verulam
Black, Joseph
Fitzroy, Robert
Galilei, Galileo
Time Periods
17th century
18th century
19th century
20th century
Enlightenment
16th century
Places
Europe
Great Britain
England
Paris (France)
North America
United States
Institutions
National Maritime Museum (Great Britain)
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Royal Society of London
United States Navy
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