Article ID: CBB928770929

Francis Galton’s Regression Towards Mediocrity and the Stability of Types (2021)


A prevalent narrative locates the discovery of the statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean in the work of Francis Galton. It is claimed that after 1885, Galton came to explain the fact that offspring deviated less from the mean value of the population than their parents did as a population-level statistical phenomenon and not as the result of the processes of inheritance. Arguing against this claim, we show that Galton did not explain regression towards mediocrity statistically, and did not give up on his ideas regarding an inheritance process that caused offspring to revert to the mean. While the common narrative focuses almost exclusively on Galton’s statistics, our arguments emphasize the anthropological and biological questions that Galton addressed. Galton used regression towards mediocrity to support the claim that some biological types were more stable than others and hence were resistant to evolutionary change. This view had implications concerning both natural selection and eugenics. The statistical explanation attributed to Galton appeared later, during the biometrician-mutationist debate in the early 1900s. It was in the context of this debate and specifically by the biometricians, that the development of the statistical explanation was originally attributed to Galton.

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Authors & Contributors
Radick, Gregory
Jablonka, Eva
Kammerer, Paul
Bernardini, Jean-Marc
Reid, Julia
Bellhouse, David R.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
International Statistical Review
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A
Philosophy of Science
Filosofia e História da Biologia
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
HIgh Sierra Books
Palgrave Macmillan
University of California, Santa Barbara
University of Calgary (Canada)
Open University (United Kingdom)
Arizona State University
Galton, Francis
Darwin, Charles Robert
Bateson, William
Darwin, George Howard
Kammerer, Paul
Weldon, Walter Frank Raphael
Time Periods
19th century
20th century, early
20th century, late
21st century
Great Britain
United States
Vienna (Austria)
Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, Md.)

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