Article ID: CBB822246783

### Juan Caramuel (1606–1682) and the Spanish Version of the Passedix Game (2019)

The game of chance called Passedix was known at least since the Middle Ages around the whole of Western Europe. It is based on the throw of three fair dice. The simplest version, for two players, consists of throwing the three dice once and summing up the numbers on the three upper faces. If this sum is greater than 10, it favours the player; if it is less than or equal to 10, it favours the opponent. A simple calculation of probabilities can show that the game is fair, in the sense of an equal probability of winning for both players. The first time we find explicit reference to this game is in an encyclopaedic work on mathematics, published in two volumes in 1667 and 1670, by the Spaniard Juan Caramuel. In this article, we describe and translate the part of this work which Caramuel dedicates to this game.

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Authors & Contributors
López Piñero, José María
Jerez Moliner, Felipe
Jullien, Dominique
Nesci, Catherine
Ineichen, Robert
Journals
NTM: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, Technik und Medizin
Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Historia Mathematica
Azogue: Revista Electrónica Dedicada al Estudio Histórico-Crítico de la Alquimia
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies
Publishers
Guida
OPVI, Organismo Público Valenciano de Investigación
OPVI
University of California, Santa Barbara
Viella
W. W. Norton & Co.
Concepts
Medicine
Games
Mathematics
Colonialism
Chance
Science
People
Caramuel, Juan
Galilei, Galileo
Malpighi, Marcello
Moleti, Giuseppe
Tosca, Tomás Vicente
Zaragoza, José de
Time Periods
17th century
16th century
18th century
Early modern
19th century
Places
Spain
Italy
Valencia (Spain)
Europe
Americas
Panama
Institutions
Habsburg, House of