Article ID: CBB558787802

Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus (1776–1827) on Gall’s Craniognomic System, Zoology, and Comparative Anatomy (2020)


Most of what was known about Franz Joseph Gall’s (1758–1828) organology or Schädellehre prior to the 1820s came from secondary sources, including letters from correspondents, promotional materials, brief newspaper articles about his lecture-demonstrations, and editions and translations of some lengthier works of varying quality in German. Physician Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus (1776–1827) practiced in Vienna’s General Hospital in 1797–1798; attended some of Gall’s public lectures; and, in 1801–1802, became one of the first physicians to provide detailed reports on Gall’s emerging organology in French and English, respectively. Although Bojanus considered the human mind to be indivisible and did not entirely agree with Gall’s assumption that the brain consists of a number of independent organs responsible for various faculties, he provided valuable information and thoughtful commentary on Gall’s views. Furthermore, he defended Gall against the charge that his sort of thinking would lead to materialism and cautiously predicted that the new system would be fruitful for developing and stimulating important new research about the brain and mind. Bojanus became a professor of zoology in 1806 and a professor of comparative anatomy in 1814 at Vilnius University, where, among other accomplishments, he established himself as a founder of modern veterinary medicine and a pioneer of pre-Darwinian and pre-Lamarckian evolutionism.

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Article Paul Eling; Stanley Finger (2020) Gall and Phrenology: New perspectives. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences (pp. 1-4). unapi

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Authors & Contributors
Eling, Paul
Finger, Stanley
Engelhardt, Dietrich von
Nolte, Jürgen
Malabou, Catherine
Constable, Marianne
Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Histoire des Sciences Médicales
European Legacy
Journal of the History of Biology
Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
University of California, Berkeley
Vent d'Est
McGill-Queen's University Press
Oxford University Press
Philosophy of mind
Comparative anatomy
Gall, Franz Joseph
Meckel, Johann Friedrich, the Younger
Oken, Lorenz
Spencer, Herbert
Kant, Immanuel
Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot
Time Periods
19th century
18th century
20th century
20th century, early
17th century
21st century
United States
Great Britain
Harvard University
Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology

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