Article ID: CBB470401957

Le télescope pyrhéliométrique de Charles Féry et la mesure de la température du Soleil (2018)


The Fïry pyrheliometric telescope has been re-discovered during an inventory at ESPCI Paris. This one-of-a-kind instrument enabled in 1906 the measurement of the surface temperature of the Sun, with an accuracy within 2% of the modern value. Its innovative design builds upon earlier models of pyrometers conceived by physicist Charles Fïry to evaluate the temperature of industrial furnaces. It consists in a traditional Newton-like optical reflecting telescope outfitted with a thermocouple. The pyrheliometermeasuresradiative power as an electric potential difference. Provided the heat source behaves as a black body, one can convert this power into a temperature, using the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The instrument was carried twice at the top of the mont Blanc to be operated by astronomer Gaston Millochau. It is both a privileged witness to the birth of physical astronomy and a testimony to the tradition of fruitful interplay between fundamental and applied research conducted at ESPCI.

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Authors & Contributors
Smith, Robert William
Brody, Judit
Véron, Philippe
Zhao, Shuanlin
Tassoul, Monique
Tassoul, Jean Louis
Journal for the History of Astronomy
Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage
Revue d'Histoire des Sciences
Nei Menggu Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)
HOST: Journal of History of Science and Technology
Princeton University Press
Floris Books
Franz Steiner Verlag
Museum of Victoria
Springer International Publishing
Scientific apparatus and instruments
Astronomical observatories
Bernhard Schmidt
Schall von Bell, Johann Adam
Maanen, Adriaan van
Zwicky, Fritz
Hubble, Edwin Powell
Sitter, Willem de
Time Periods
19th century
20th century
20th century, early
21st century
17th century
18th century
Paris (France)
United States
Great Britain
Melbourne (Victoria, Australia)
Paris Observatory
Mount Wilson Observatory

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