Article ID: CBB438527364

E. E. Just and Creativity in Science. The Importance of Diversity (2015)


Renowned biologist Ernest Everett Just (1883–1941) was an outspoken advocate for the classical embryologist’s view of the cell; he believed that all the parts of the cell, but especially the cytoplasm, have important roles to play in the process of development, whereby a one-celled zygote becomes a many-celled animal. In opposition to geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan, Just formulated a hypothesis for how the cell works in development, one that gave a more dominant role to cytoplasmic (instead of nuclear) factors. This paper argues that, in creating his hypothesis, Just applied insights from the African American intellectual community in which he was immersed, much as Charles Darwin applied insights from British political economist Thomas R. Malthus in formulating his theory of evolution by natural selection. This in no way diminishes the scientific validity of Just’s (or Darwin’s) hypothesis. Rather, it highlights Just’s creativity and, as such, points to the importance of having diversity in science.

Citation URI

Similar Citations

Article Dröscher, Ariane; (2002)
Edmund B. Wilson's The Cell and Cell Theory between 1896 and 1925 (/isis/citation/CBB000501157/)

Article Ghesquier, Danièle; (2002)
La centrifugation et la cellule: la déconstruction du protoplasme entre 1880 et 1910 (/isis/citation/CBB000770937/)

Article Breathnach, Caoimhghin S.; (2005)
Hugh Ross's Curious Lymphocyte Experiments (/isis/citation/CBB000640654/)

Book Lerone A. Martin; (2014)
Preaching on Wax: The Phonograph and the Shaping of Modern African American Religion (/isis/citation/CBB497586158/)

Article Collins, Sibrina N.; (2011)
Celebrating Our Diversity: The Education of Some Pioneering African American Chemists in Ohio (/isis/citation/CBB001232504/)

Article Savitt, T. L.; (2000)
Four African-American proprietary medical colleges: 1888-1923 (/isis/citation/CBB000111187/)

Book Fraser, Gertrude Jacinta; (1998)
African American Midwifery in the South: Dialogues of Birth, Race, and Memory (/isis/citation/CBB000771253/)

Book Kornweibel, Theodore; (2010)
Railroads in the African American Experience: A Photographic Journey (/isis/citation/CBB001230717/)

Thesis Wilson, Jamie Jaywann; (2005)
Sickness, Health, and the Politics of Well Being in Harlem, New York, during the Interwar Period (/isis/citation/CBB001561813/)

Article Terence D. Keel; (2015)
Charles V. Roman and the Spectre of Polygenism in Progressive Era Public Health Research (/isis/citation/CBB810051100/)

Thesis Lawrence, Sarah Raphael; (2007)
On Their Own Terms: African Americans and Birth Control in the Rural South,1900--1942 (/isis/citation/CBB001561508/)

Book Savitt, Todd Lee; (2007)
Race and Medicine in Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century America (/isis/citation/CBB000772267/)

Authors & Contributors
Zambo, Debby
Flores, Alfinio
Savitt, T. L.
Phillips, Layli
Dröscher, Ariane
Breathnach, Caoimhghin S.
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
History of Psychology
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Journal of Black Studies
Revue d'Histoire des Sciences
Harvard University Press
Kent State University Press
Johns Hopkins University Press
Pennsylvania State University
New York University
Princeton University
African Americans and science
African Americans
Medicine and race
Public health
Science and race
Cellular biology
Kenneth B. Clark
Wilson, Edmund Beecher
Ross, Hugh Campbell
Cox, Oliver Cromwell
Carver, George Washington
Bishop, Shelton Hale
Time Periods
20th century, early
19th century
20th century
United States
Southern states (U.S.)
New York City (New York, U.S.)
Ohio (U.S.)
Maryland (U.S.)
University of Chicago
American Social Hygiene Association
Lafargue Mental Hygiene Clinic

Be the first to comment!

{{ comment.created_by.username }} on {{ comment.created_on | date:'medium' }}

Log in or register to comment