Article ID: CBB438527364

E. E. Just and Creativity in Science. The Importance of Diversity (2015)

unapi

Renowned biologist Ernest Everett Just (1883–1941) was an outspoken advocate for the classical embryologist’s view of the cell; he believed that all the parts of the cell, but especially the cytoplasm, have important roles to play in the process of development, whereby a one-celled zygote becomes a many-celled animal. In opposition to geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan, Just formulated a hypothesis for how the cell works in development, one that gave a more dominant role to cytoplasmic (instead of nuclear) factors. This paper argues that, in creating his hypothesis, Just applied insights from the African American intellectual community in which he was immersed, much as Charles Darwin applied insights from British political economist Thomas R. Malthus in formulating his theory of evolution by natural selection. This in no way diminishes the scientific validity of Just’s (or Darwin’s) hypothesis. Rather, it highlights Just’s creativity and, as such, points to the importance of having diversity in science.

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Authors & Contributors
Zambo, Debby
Flores, Alfinio
Savitt, T. L.
Phillips, Layli
Dröscher, Ariane
Breathnach, Caoimhghin S.
Journals
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
History of Psychology
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Journal of Black Studies
Revue d'Histoire des Sciences
Publishers
Harvard University Press
Kent State University Press
Johns Hopkins University Press
Pennsylvania State University
New York University
Princeton University
Concepts
African Americans and science
African Americans
Medicine and race
Public health
Science and race
Cellular biology
People
Kenneth B. Clark
Wilson, Edmund Beecher
Ross, Hugh Campbell
Cox, Oliver Cromwell
Carver, George Washington
Bishop, Shelton Hale
Time Periods
20th century, early
19th century
20th century
Places
United States
Southern states (U.S.)
New York City (New York, U.S.)
Germany
Ohio (U.S.)
Maryland (U.S.)
Institutions
University of Chicago
American Social Hygiene Association
Lafargue Mental Hygiene Clinic
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