Article ID: CBB326205000

El final de la fabricación de plutonio en España, o el primer obstáculo técnico para poseer armamento nuclear (2022)

unapi

El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar la arriesgada fabricación de plutonio, grado militar, en la Ciudad Universitaria de Madrid, como uno de los pasajes más desconocidos del proyecto de viabilidad de armamento nuclear en España, denominado “Proyecto Islero” (P.I.), considerado todavía secreto de estado. Partimos de 1963, cuando se aprueban las dos primeras centrales nucleares y da comienzo el P.I., hasta el final de la fabricación y almacenamiento de plutonio metal (1972), focalizando en el ciclo de combustible o en los problemas de plantilla. Antes fue precisa una intensa actividad formativa e investigadora, gracias al decidido apoyo gubernamental. La ausencia de unas medidas de seguridad acordes a la actividad generó el accidente nuclear de 1970 en la JEN, con el vertido de residuos líquidos de alta actividad al alcantarillado, ríos Manzanares, Jarama y Tajo, de consecuencias desconocidas hasta el presente, lo cual, junto con la falta de consenso en el Gobierno y en el estamento militar, fueron determinantes para la paralización del inventario de plutonio, tras replantear y reforzar los sistemas de seguridad del centro. Además de la historiografía existente, se aporta una parte de la reveladora documentación interna de la Junta de Energía Nuclear (JEN), desconocida en su mayor parte. [English translation by DeepL.com: The purpose of this work is to study the risky manufacture of plutonium, military grade, in the Ciudad Universitaria de Madrid, as one of the most unknown passages of the project of nuclear weapons feasibility in Spain, called "Proyecto Islero" (P.I.), still considered a state secret. We start from 1963, when the first two nuclear power plants were approved and the IP began, until the end of the manufacture and storage of plutonium metal (1972), focusing on the fuel cycle or staffing problems. Prior to this, intense training and research activity was required, thanks to strong government support. The absence of safety measures in accordance with the activity generated the nuclear accident of 1970 at the JEN, with the discharge of high activity liquid waste into the sewage system, Manzanares, Jarama and Tajo rivers, with consequences unknown until now, which, together with the lack of consensus in the Government and the military establishment, were decisive for the suspension of the plutonium inventory, after reconsidering and reinforcing the safety systems of the center. In addition to the existing historiography, a part of the revealing internal documentation of the Nuclear Energy Board (JEN), unknown for the most part, is provided.]

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Authors & Contributors
Sidorenko, Viktor
Carlisle, Rodney P.
Hoffman, Darleane C.
Juraku, Kohta
Kim, Hyomin
Kuchinskaya, Olga
Journals
East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal
Cold War History
Comparative Studies in Society and History
Environmental History
Historia Scientiarum: International Journal of the History of Science Society of Japan
History and Technology
Publishers
IzdAT
Cambridge University Press
Basic Books
Johns Hopkins University Press
Pétra
University Research Alliance
Concepts
Nuclear power stations
Nuclear power; atomic energy
Nuclear industry
Science and politics
Technology
Cold War
Time Periods
20th century, late
21st century
20th century
Places
Soviet Union
Canada
Japan
Russia
Spain
United States
Institutions
United States. Atomic Energy Commission
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