Article ID: CBB275166187

Bipolar Disorder and Its Outcomes: Two Cohorts, 1875–1924 and 1994–2007, Compared (2016)


We compared admission rates and outcomes for bipolar disorder patients using the medical records of patients with a first hospital admission in 1875–1924 retrospectively diagnosed based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria, and patients with a first admission in 1994–2007. The incidences of first admissions in the historical and contemporary periods are comparable: 1.2 and 1.3 per hundred thousand per year, respectively. Manic episodes constituted a greater proportion of admissions historically, while depressive episodes made up more in the contemporary sample. There is no evidence for a reduction in the mean inter-admission intervals with duration of illness. This study suggests that modern treatments may have decreased lengths of stay in hospital, but at a cost of contributing to more admissions. It also points to a shift in the threshold for admissions.

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Authors & Contributors
Wright, David
Andrews, Jonathan
Asberg, M. A.
Berkenkotter, Carol
Blom, Jan Dirk
Boyce, Niall
History of Psychiatry
Health and History
History of the Human Sciences
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Medical History
Medizinhistorisches Journal
Oxford University Press
University of Chicago
University of South Carolina
Cambridge University Press
Polity Press
Mental disorders and diseases
Hospitals and clinics
Case studies
Binswanger, Ludwig
Down, John Langdon Haydon
Monro, John
Stuart, Gilbert
Time Periods
19th century
20th century
18th century
20th century, early
21st century
Great Britain
United States. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA)

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