Article ID: CBB027990876

The Lost-Wax Process in the Pre-Qin Period: A Bronze Appendage with Hollow Snake Patterns from the Tomb of Duke Ning of Xu (2017)


This paper discusses the most recent case of the lost-wax process, namely, a bronze appendage with hollow snake patterns excavated in 2002 at the tomb of Duke Ning of Xu (許公寧) (a state in the Spring and Autumn period) in Ye County, Henan Province. Various physical and chemical analyses indicate that this artifact was cast as a whole in 547 BCE or slightly later in a high tin bronze alloy using the lost-wax process. No traces of cast joints or soldering were found. This research provides further proof that the lost-wax process was a significant technical development achieved by casters in the Pre-Qin period.

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Authors & Contributors
Richards, Michelle J.
Günther, Jasmin
Derui Tan
Jun Wenren
Rongyu Su
Zhou, Wei-rong
Ziran Kexueshi Yanjiu (Studies in the History of Natural Sciences)
Nei Menggu Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)
Chinese Annals of History of Science and Technology
Journal of the History of Collections
Journal of Dialectics of Nature
Indian Journal of History of Science
Pentagon Press
Harvard University Art Museums
East Asia, civilization and culture
Metal casting
Excavations (archaeology)
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim
Andersson, Johan Gunnar
Time Periods
Qing dynasty (China, 1644-1912)
Ming dynasty (China, 1368-1644)
Tang dynasty (China, 618-907)
Zhou dynasty (China, 1122-221 B.C.)
Naples (Italy)
Pompeii (Italy)

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