Article ID: CBB001422596

New Tin Mines and Production Sites near Kültepe in Turkey: A Third-Millennium BC Highland Production Model (2015)


An unexpected new source of tin was recently located at Hisarc k, in the foothills of the Mount Erciyes volcano in the Kayseri Plain, close to the Bronze Age town of Kültepe, ancient Kanesh and home to a colony of Assyrian traders. Volcanoes in Turkey have always been associated with obsidian sources but were not known to be a major source of heavy metals, much less tin. X-ray fluorescence analyses of the Hisarc k ores revealed the presence of minerals suitable for the production of complex copper alloys, and sufficient tin and arsenic content to produce tin-bronze. These findings revise our understanding of bronze production in Anatolia in the third millennium BC and demand a re-evaluation of Assyrian trade routes and the position of the Early Bronze Age societies of Anatolia within that network.

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Authors & Contributors
Oeggl, K.
Osgood, Richard
Toms, Judith
Monks, Sarah
Baboula, Eva
Webb, Jennifer M.
Archeoastronomy (Supplement to Journal for the History of Astronomy)
Zhongguo Keji Shiliao (China Historical Materials of Science and Technology)
Guangxi Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao
Centaurus: International Magazine of the History of Mathematics, Science, and Technology
Sutton Publishing, Ltd.
Halle (Saale) Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte
Oxford University Press
University of Reading
Oxbow Books
Metals and metallic compounds
Metal casting
Time Periods
Bronze age
Han dynasty (China, 202 B.C.-220 A.D.)
Early modern
Zhou dynasty (China, 1122-221 B.C.)
Arabian peninsula
Balkan Peninsula
Mallorca (Spain)

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