Article ID: CBB001252555

On High Vacuum and Low Temperatures: Their Critical Roles in Experimental Atomics (2006)


The transition to quantum physics during the early years of the 20th century was preceded during the last two decades of the 19th century by a subtle revolution in the types of experiments undertaken in many physical laboratories. Starting around 1880, experiments were initiated to determine the magnitudes of atomic/molecular parameters by direct manipulation of particles generated by fragmentation of numerous gaseous compounds. This could be successfully undertaken when sufficiently low pressures of ambient gases were attained. In turn that depended on the development of efficient vacuum pumps and cryogenic liquids.

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Authors & Contributors
Chown, Marcus
Staley, Kent W.
Ploeger, Joanna S.
Yamaguchi, Tatsuaki
Hon, Giora
Achinstein, Peter
Physics in Perspective
European Physical Journal H
Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science
History and Technology
化学史研究 [Kagakushi kenkyū; Journal of the Japanese Society for the History of Chemistry]
Perspectives on Science
Jonathan Cape
Cambridge University Press
University of Oklahoma Press
Edition Open Access
Pavia University Press
Atomic, nuclear, and particle physics
Experiments and experimentation
Philosophy of science
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolph
Franck, James
Hertz, Gustav
Duhem, Pierre
Maxwell, James Clerk
Democritos of Abdera
Time Periods
19th century
20th century
20th century, late
21st century
20th century, early
18th century
United States
Great Britain
North America
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States)

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