Article ID: CBB001250835

Predicting the Past: Ancient Eclipses and Airy, Newcomb, and Huxley on the Authority of Science (2012)

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Greek historical accounts of ancient eclipses were an important, if peculiar, focus of scientific attention in the nineteenth century. Victorian-era astronomers tried to correct the classical histories using scientific methods, then used those histories as data with which to calibrate their lunar theories, then rejected the histories as having any relevance at all. The specific dating of these eclipses---apparently a simple exercise in celestial mechanics---became bound up with tensions between scientific and humanistic approaches to the past as well as with wider social debates over the power and authority of science in general. The major figures discussed here, including G. B. Airy, Simon Newcomb, and T. H. Huxley, argued that the critical question was whether science could speak authoritatively about the past. To them, the ability of science to talk about the past indicated its power to talk about the future; it was also the fulcrum of fierce boundary disputes among science, history, and religion.

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Authors & Contributors
Belteki, Daniel
Ishibashi, Yuto
Barton, William M.
Gillin, Edward J.
Achbari, Azadeh
Keer, Norman C.
Journals
Journal for the History of Astronomy
History of Science
Spontaneous Generations
Solar Physics
Science in Context
Perspectives on Science
Publishers
Liveright Publishing Corporation A Division of W.W. Norton and Company
University of Chicago Press
Pickering & Chatto
Mantanzas
Bishop Museum Press
Cambridge University Press
Concepts
Astronomy
Authority of science
Eclipses; transits; occultations; conjunctions
Venus
Science and society
Science and government
People
Airy, George Biddell
Huxley, Thomas Henry
Newcomb, Simon
Merz, Georg
Tyndall, John
Spencer, Herbert
Time Periods
19th century
20th century, early
17th century
Places
Great Britain
United States
England
Atlantic Ocean
Hawaii (U.S.)
Institutions
Royal Observatory Greenwich
X-Club
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