Article ID: CBB001220579

Franz Josef Kallmann (1897--1965) und der Transfer Psychiatrisch-Genetischer Wissenschaftskonzepte vom NS-Deutschland in die USA (2009)

unapi

The founding of the German Research Institute for Psychiatry and its Genealogic-Demographic Department (Genealogisch-Demographische Abteilung; GDA) in 1918 gave the world the first institutional platform for the field of psychiatric genetics. The years between the two World Wars saw the GDA grow in importance with much international respect. The close collaboration between the GDA's protagonist Ernst Rüdin and the National Socialist regime was certainly not an inhibiting factor for the worldwide recognition of the eugenic research conducted in Munich. Around the mid-1930s, the German psychiatrist émigré Franz Josef Kallmann brought the field of study which had been put into practice in Munich to the United States. He fought an uphill battle to be accepted by the North American scientific community, but finally he was able to establish himself as the main researcher in the field of psychiatric genetics. Interestingly enough, the fact that his kind of research had been heavily supported by the National Socialist regime was not a barrier to his acceptance. The fact that it took him a long time to establish the field of eugenics in the U.S.A. is better explained by the psychoanalytic research methods at the time, which gave hereditary transmission short shrift. At the New York State Psychiatric Institute he was able to continue his research, including the examination of race-hygienic motifs, where he designed a research program that was directly based on concepts and methods from Ernst Rüdin's team of researchers in Munich. The only deviation from the original research was in terms of the use of eugenic prophylaxis where he aligned his research in the context of North American democracy in the post-war era. However, the eugenic goal of elimination of certain categories of peoples remained unchanged.

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Authors & Contributors
Roelcke, Volker
Kaufmann, Doris
Weindling, Paul J.
Cottebrune, Anne
Stahnisch, Frank W.
Harwood, Jonathan H.
Journals
Medizinhistorisches Journal
Journal of the History of Biology
NTM: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, Technik und Medizin
History of Psychiatry
Vesalius
Canadian Bulletin of Medical History/Bulletin Canadienne d'Histoire de la Medecine
Publishers
Palgrave Macmillan
Wallstein Verlag
Ohio University Press
University of Chicago Press
Concepts
Eugenics
National Socialism
Genetics
Psychiatry
Science and politics
Science and race
People
Rüdin, Ernst
Darwin, Charles Robert
Carrel, Alexis
Poll, Heinrich Wilhelm
Kraepelin, Emil
Monakow, Constantin von
Time Periods
20th century, early
20th century
19th century
21st century
Places
Germany
United States
Southern states (U.S.)
Netherlands
North America
Europe
Institutions
Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften
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