Article ID: CBB001213838

Ambassador Clare Boothe Luce and the Evolution of Psychological Warfare in Italy (2012)


Ambassador Clare Boothe Luce (Italy, 1953--56) exemplified American arrogance and intrusiveness in allies' domestic affairs. Connected to the inner circle of `psychological warriors' in the Eisenhower administration, she was also a catalyst for action from Washington. This archival-based article shows how Luce's frontal attack on communist power, while often counterproductive, was also balanced by her discerning use of diplomacy, which deeply influenced the interplay between Italy's domestic and foreign policies. Luce also critically reassessed the effects of US mass culture in Italy. In political as well as intellectual circles, she did not exclusively favour Italy's unconditional supporters of the United States. Reflecting Washington's renewed flexibility, she also dealt with political and cultural leaders who nurtured autonomy and mild criticism of the United States. This flexibility, often going beyond Luce's will or expectations, helped counteract the most virulently anti-American representatives of Italian Marxism.

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Authors & Contributors
Paula Urze
Gordon Barrett
Beatriz Medori
Lidiane Soares Rodrigues
Régis Briday
Gill, David James
British Journal for the History of Science
Diplomatic History
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change
Science Technology and Society
Science in Context
Osiris: A Research Journal Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences
Stanford University Press
Oxford University Press
Cambridge University Press
Foreign relations; diplomacy
Science and politics
Political science
Science and technology studies (STS)
Visual representation; visual communication
Cold War
Nixon, Richard M.
Train, Russell Errol
Tôn-Thất, Tùng
Tingsten, Herbert
Needham, Joseph
Curie, family
Time Periods
20th century, late
20th century, early
21st century
20th century
19th century
United States
Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Ford Foundation
United Nations
United States. President's Science Advisory Committee

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