Article ID: CBB000830395

Scientific Exchange: Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) and Emil Godlewski (1875-1944) as Representatives of a Transatlantic Developmental Biology (2007)


The German--American physiologist Jacques Loeb (1859--1924) and the Polish embryologist Emil Godlewski, jr. (1875--1944) contributed many valuable works to the body of developmental biology. Jacques Loeb was world famous at the beginning of the twentieth century for his development and demonstration of artificial parthenogenesis in 1899 and his experiments on regeneration. He served as a role model for the younger Polish experimenter Emil Godlewski, who began his career as a researcher like Loeb at the Zoological Station in Naples. Following Godlewski's first visit to Naples in 1901 a close relationship between the two scientists developed. Until Loeb's death in 1924 the two exchanged ideas via correspondence that was only interrupted during the First World War. The aim of the paper is to examine the transatlantic transfer of knowledge in the field of biological experimentation that was fostered by these two protagonists. Using a modification of Bruno Latour's model of the `Circulatory System of Science' as a heuristic tool, different mechanisms of scientific exchange are displayed. With the help of Loeb's and Godlewski's correspondence the role of scientific communities, methods, allies, the public and institutions in the process of knowledge transfer are analysed. Preconditions for success and failure in transferring science are examined.

Citation URI

Similar Citations

Article Fangerau, Heiner; (2007)
Biology and War---American Biology and International Science (/isis/citation/CBB000931559/)

Article Fangerau, Heiner; (2009)
From Mephistopheles to Isaiah: Jacques Loeb, Technical Biology and War (/isis/citation/CBB000953540/)

Article Hoppe, Brigitte; Robin, Nicolas; Štrbáňová, Soňa; (2006)
Introduction (/isis/citation/CBB000771783/)

Article Naranjo Orovio, C.; Puig-Samper, M. Á.; (2007)
Las redes de la ciencia: la JAE en el exilio (/isis/citation/CBB000831522/)

Article Tang, Li; Hu, Guangyuan; (2013)
Tracing the Footprint of Knowledge Spillover: Evidence from U.S.--China Collaboration in Nanotechnology (/isis/citation/CBB001320128/)

Article Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg; (2006)
Internationalism and the History of Molecular Biology (/isis/citation/CBB000933671/)

Book López-Ocón, Leoncio; Chaumeil, Jean-Pierre; Verde Casanova, Ana; (2005)
Los americanistas del siglo XIX: La construcción de una comunidad científica internacional (/isis/citation/CBB000820053/)

Article Heilbron, Johan; Guilhot, Nicolas; Jeanpierre, Laurent; (2008)
Toward a Transnational History of the Social Sciences (/isis/citation/CBB000774205/)

Article Zhang, Daqing; Chen, Xiaoke; (2006)
From Brain Drain to Brain Gain: The CUSBEA Programme and Its Influence on Life Science in China (/isis/citation/CBB000771797/)

Thesis Lowenfeld, Daniel; (2011)
The International Origins and Popularization of Eugenics (/isis/citation/CBB001562732/)

Article Schmitt, Stéphane; (2003)
Homeosis and Atavistic Regeneration: The “Biogenetic Law” in Entwicklungsmechanik (/isis/citation/CBB000600372/)

Article Bard, Jonathan B. L.; (2008)
Waddington's Legacy to Developmental and Theoretical Biology (/isis/citation/CBB001230125/)

Article Grant, Susan; (2015)
The American Hospital in Moscow: A Lesson in International Cooperation, 1917--23 (/isis/citation/CBB001552806/)

Article Piskurewicz, J.; (2005)
The Collaboration between Albert Einstein and Maria Sklodowska-Curie (/isis/citation/CBB000931619/)

Authors & Contributors
Fangerau, Heiner
Schmitt, Stéphane
Gaudillière, Jean-Paul
Hoppe, Brigitte
Štrbáňová, Soňa
Robin, Nicolas
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Asclepio: Archivo Iberoamericano de Historia de la Medicina
Kwartalnik Historii Nauki i Techniki
St. John's University (New York)
International cooperation
Cross-national interaction
Scientific communities; interprofessional relations
Science and politics
Developmental biology
Loeb, Jacques
Haeckel, Ernst
Jiménez de la Espada, Marcos
Einstein, Albert
Curie, Marie Sklodowska
Waddington, Conrad Hal
Time Periods
20th century, early
19th century
20th century, late
20th century
18th century
21st century
United States
Latin America
Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Spain)
Commission internationale de coopération intellectuelle (CICI)
Rockefeller Foundation
General Electric

Be the first to comment!

{{ comment.created_by.username }} on {{ comment.created_on | date:'medium' }}

Log in or register to comment