Article ID: CBB000773901

Visual Standards and Disciplinary Change: Normal Plates, Tables and Stages in Embryology (2005)


This article reconstructs the rise over the last two centuries of normal tables and the related normal plates and stages, and reflects on the relations between visual standards and disciplinary change in embryology. In the nineteenth century embryology was a central approach to animal life and a pillar of Darwinism. More than any other science, embryology has organized its objects in developmental series. During the nineteenth century visual representations of development became more prominent than textual descriptions, and in embryology perhaps especially central.


Description On the use of visual representations of embryological change in the form of normal plates, tables, and stages and their relationship to disciplinary change in embryology in the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Authors & Contributors
Maienschein, Jane A.
Brauckmann, Sabine
Hopwood, Nick
Creath, Richard
Gurdon, John B.
Ruse, Michael
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
International Journal of Developmental Biology
NTM: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, Technik und Medizin
Cambridge University Press
University of Pittsburgh
Yale University Press
Developmental biology
Visual representation; visual communication
Scientific illustration
Cellular biology
Haeckel, Ernst
Baer, Karl Ernst von
Darwin, Charles Robert
Mill, John Stuart
Hadorn, Ernst
Dalcq, Albert
Time Periods
19th century
20th century
20th century, early
18th century
21st century
17th century
Great Britain

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